Medlars are ornamental, flowering trees with pretty blossom, good autumn colour and fruits which are edible, although not to everyone’s taste. Their fruit is tart if eaten raw, but makes pleasantly flavoured jellies or can be used in desserts. Left to soften the fruit mellows and is a traditional, if unusual, treat.
Medlars tolerate most soils, unless very chalky or badly drained, but grow best in a deep, fertile, well-drained soil. They will do best in a warm, sheltered site in sun but can be grown in partial shade. Leaves and flowers are easily damaged by strong winds.
Due to their spreading habit medlars are best grown as standard or half-standard trees (trees with a well developed clear trunk). Medlars are grafted onto quince or hawthorn rootstocks. The semi-vigorous Quince A and BA29 rootstocks offer greater stability, producing trees 4-6m (13-20ft) in height and spread. Trees are self-fertile, so there is no need to worry about pollination groups and only a single tree need be grown to produce fruit.
If planting a new tree, ideally do so between November and March, and if planting more than one, allow 4.5m (15ft) between each tree. Stake trees for the first three or four years.
In March apply a general fertiliser, such as growmore, at 70g per sq m (2oz per sq yd) over the rooting area. After applying fertiliser, mulch with well-rotted farmyard manure or compost.
Adequate moisture is essential to obtain strong growth and good cropping, and young tree in particular should be watered well during dry spells in spring and summer for the first three or four years.
Pruning and training
Medlars need annual pruning in winter to maintain a healthy shape encourage good flowering and fruiting. Prune as follows:
- For the first three or four years cut back the longest upwards growing shoots or leaders, of the main framework branches by about one-third of the previous summer’s growth, always pruning back to an outward-facing bud
- Cut back to two or three buds from the point of origin, any badly placed shoots that cross over the centre. The aim is to achieve an open-centred, well-spaced branch framework
- Leave short shoots unpruned but remove poorly placed or crowded longer branches
- After the fourth year, lightly winter prune to keep an open framework, removing any crowded, diseased or dead branches. Mature trees do not respond well to hard pruning
If buying a young tree, if possible, buy a part-trained standard or half-standard tree. For formative pruning, see the advice for apples and pears.
Medlars are ready to pick in late October or early November when they are about 2.5-5cm (1-2in) across. At this stage they are not fully ripe.
You can leave fruit on the tree well into autumn to develop flavour provided there is no danger of frosts. Pick in dry conditions when the stalk parts easily from the tree.
Storage until ripe
The fruits are unpalatable immediately after picking, but can be used to pleasantly flavoured jellies, can be used in desserts and for wine-making. To be eaten raw they must be stored before using.
Briefly dip the stalks in a strong salt solution to prevent rotting. Store fruit eye downwards and not touching in trays in a cool, dark, frost-free place. Use when the fruit is ‘bletted’, that is, the flesh softens and turns brown, but not rotten. This will usually take about two or three weeks.
Medlars are grafted or budded onto quince rootstocks or could be grown from seed. Fruit nurseries will often supply rootstocks and carry out the grafting or budding for you if you have suitable scion material. You can try grafting yourself, but can be tricky and normally takes years of practice.
Several forms of medlar are available;
- Mespilus germanica ‘Dutch’ – spreading habit and fairly large fruit
- M. germanica ‘Nottingham’ – more upright habit and the best flavour, but the fruits are fairly small
- M. germanica ‘Royal’ – fairly upright habit and medium-sized fruit
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Medlars are almost always trouble-free, but are occasionally attacked by leaf-eating caterpillars, which can be picked off or sprayed with a suitable insecticide just after bud burst.