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Holm oaks are affected by several leaf mining insects. The most troublesome are two species of leaf-mining moths, whose caterpillars disfigure the foliage.
Angle shades mothCodling mothEncouraging moths into your gardenHorse chestnut leaf-mining mothReducing the size of large trees safelyWinter moth caterpillars
Leaf-mining moths are tiny moths with caterpillars that feed inside the leaves, creating discoloured blotches and meandering lines where the internal tissues have been eaten away.
Common names Holm oak leaf-mining mothsScientific names Phyllonorycter messaniella and Ectoedemia heringellaPlants affected Holm oak (Quercus ilex)Main symptoms Brownish white blotches or wiggly linear mines in the foliageMost active All year
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