Leek moth is mainly a problem in southern England but it is spreading north. The caterpillars feed within the foliage and stems or bulbs of leeks, onions and related vegetables.
What is leek moth?
The adult leek moth is an inconspicuous very small (5-6mm) brown moth. Its larvae (caterpillars) feed on leeks and similar crops.
Damage from leek moth caterpillars appears as;
- White patches developing on the foliage where the caterpillars have eaten the internal tissues
- Tunnels in the stems of leeks and bulbs of onions, shallots and garlic
- Affected plants often develop secondary rots and young leek plants may be killed
Note that these plants are also attacked in a similar manner by larvae of a fly, known as the allium leaf miner;
- Leek moth caterpillars are creamy-white with brown heads and small legs
- Larvae of the leaf-mining fly are white, headless maggots with no legs
The female moths can be prevented from laying eggs by covering susceptible plants with horticultural fleece, or an insect-proof mesh such as Ultra-Fine Enviromesh. Look for the white, net-like silk cocoons on the foliage and squash them.
None of the pesticides available to amateur gardeners for use on leeks and onions is likely to give effective control.
Leek moth has two generations during the summer with larvae damaging the plants;
- From the first generation in May-June
- And the second generation in August-October
- The second generation is the more numerous and damaging
Initially the caterpillars mine the foliage but the older larvae bore into the stems and bulbs.
When fully fed, the caterpillars are 11 mm long. They come out of the plant and pupate within net-like silk cocoons that are spun on the foliage.
Adult moths emerge in autumn and overwinter in sheltered places.
Common name Leek moth
Latin name Acrolepiopsis assectella
Plants affected Leek, onion, shallot, garlic
Main symptoms White patches on leaves, with young plants rotting and dying. Small caterpillars may be seen in the plant tissues
Caused by Caterpillars of a small moth